Understanding Water Hammer: Causes, Effects, and Effective Solutions

Water hammer is a common plumbing issue that often goes unnoticed until it becomes a significant problem. If you've ever heard a loud banging noise when you turn off a faucet or noticed your pipes making strange sounds, you may be experiencing water hammer. In this blog post, we will delve into what water hammer is, its causes, effects, and most importantly, how to prevent and stop it from wreaking havoc on your plumbing system.
Water Hammer

What is Water Hammer?

Water hammer, also known as hydraulic shock, is a phenomenon that occurs when a sudden change in the flow of water within a plumbing system results in pressure fluctuations and shockwaves. This can lead to loud banging or knocking noises in your pipes, and over time, it can cause damage to pipes, joints, and fixtures.
water hammer effect

Causes of Water Hammer

  • Quick Valve Closures: One of the primary causes of water hammer is the abrupt closing of valves, such as faucets, washing machines, or dishwashers. When water flow is suddenly stopped, the momentum of the flowing water creates pressure waves that travel through the pipes, causing the banging noise.
  • High Water Velocity: Water traveling at high speeds through pipes can exacerbate water hammer. This is often the case in larger plumbing systems or systems with oversized pipes that allow water to flow too quickly.
  • Long Pipe Lengths: Longer pipe lengths provide more room for pressure fluctuations to develop and intensify. The longer the distance for the pressure waves to travel, the more significant the water hammer effect can become.
Water Hammer Prevention

Effects of Water Hammer

  • Noise Pollution: The most obvious effect of water hammer is the loud banging or knocking noise that can disturb your household. These noises are not only irritating but can also signal potential damage to your plumbing system.
  • Pipe Damage: Over time, the repeated stress from water hammer can weaken pipes and joints, leading to leaks, cracks, and even burst pipes. This can result in costly repairs and water damage to your property.
  • Appliance Wear and Tear: Appliances like washing machines and dishwashers can suffer from accelerated wear and tear due to water hammer, leading to a shorter lifespan and more frequent breakdowns.
Water Hammer Causes

Preventing and Mitigating Water Hammer

  • Install Water Hammer Arrestors: Water hammer arrestors are devices that absorb the shockwaves caused by water hammer, preventing them from traveling through the pipes and causing noise and damage. These can be installed at specific points in your plumbing system to effectively mitigate the issue.
  • Adjust Water Pressure: High water pressure can contribute to water hammer. Consider installing a pressure reducing valve (PRV) to regulate the water pressure in your plumbing system and reduce the risk of water hammer.
  • Slow Valve Closure: Whenever possible, avoid abruptly shutting off water valves. Instead, close valves gradually to reduce the momentum of the water flow and minimize pressure fluctuations.
  • Install Air Chambers: Air chambers are vertical sections of pipes that contain air, which acts as a cushion to absorb the shockwaves created by water hammer. Regular maintenance is essential to ensure the air chambers remain effective.
Water Hammer Solutions


Water hammer might start as an annoying noise, but if left unchecked, it can lead to severe damage to your plumbing system and property. Understanding its causes, effects, and taking preventive measures such as installing water hammer arrestors, adjusting water pressure, and using air chambers can help you put an end to this troublesome plumbing issue. By taking proactive steps, you can enjoy a quiet and well-maintained plumbing system for years to come.

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